About Me

Mr Ioannis Christakis

Consultant Endocrine and General Surgeon in Nottingham

MD MSc MSc(Surg) FRCS(Eng) FEBS(Endo) PhD

GMC: 7031590

Areas of expertise in surgery




Graves' disease


Thyroid cancer


Thyroid nodule


Adrenal nodule



My Background

Mr Christakis is a board-certified Consultant Endocrine and General Surgeon in Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and his private practise is at the BMI The Park Hospital in Nottingham.

He manages all forms of benign and complex/redo cancer cases for thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands – having trained in some of the most prestigious Units in the UK and in the USA. He is one of the highest volume surgeons for thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal pathologies in the United Kingdom. He has a special interest in parathyroidectomies after failed explorations and when the localisation scans are negative and in thyroidectomies for cancer and for hyperthyroidism.

His main focus is delivering excellent and safe care to his patients and strongly believes that the relationship between a patient and a surgeon is a unique bond that is built on trust.

Mr Cristakis is an Honorary Clinical Assistant Professor in the University of Nottingham and has a Doctorate degree (PhD) in Endocrinology from Imperial College London. He has published/been co-author in 45 peer-reviewed articles and presented 58 studies in National and International Meetings/Courses.

He has a strong interest in medical education having weekly teaching sessions with medical students and is a clinical/educational supervisor for medical students and surgical trainees. Mr Cristakis has designed and is running in the Post-graduate Education Centre a Neck hematoma Hands-on Simulation Course that teaches participants how to manage a patient with a post-operative neck hematoma.


Board certified in Endocrine and General Surgery: FRCS and FEBS(Endo), registered from 2012 in Specialist Registry of GMC in General Surgery Endocrine Surgery

Endocrine Surgery Experience

  • Clinical lead for Endocrine Surgery in Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust
  • 4 years of Fellowship in Endocrine Surgery
  • Oxford Hospital NHS Trust
  • MD Anderson Cancer Centre USA
  • King’s College Hospital NHS Trust
  • University College London Hospital NHS Trust
  • Hammersmith Hospital NHS Trust

Endocrine Surgery Operating Skills

  • 1000 thyroidectomies
  • >500 parathyroidectomies
  • >250 adrenalectomies

Research Qualifications


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) from Imperial College London


Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Surgical Endocrinology in MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Texas, USA


Master’s Degrees (MSc)


Book chapters: 5

Peer-reviewed journal articles: 43

Number of Courses/Meetings attended: 61 (United Kingdom: 28, USA: 7, Other International: 10, Greece: 16)

Number of studies presented in Meetings/Congresses: 52 (United Kingdom: 18, USA: Other International: 5, Greece: 20)

Reviewer for the following Journals: “International Journal of Surgery”, “Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology” and “Journal of Investigative Surgery”

Full Publication List

A. Published Book Chapters (Total number: 5)

1) Christakis I., Perrier N. (2015) “Recurrent and Persistent Hyperparathyroidism” in
Cameron Textbook “Current Surgical Therapy”, 12th Edition”. Elsevier Publications,
ISBN: 978-0-323-37691-4

2) Christakis I., Abdel-Aziz T. (2015). “Surgery of the adrenal glands” in book: Head and
Neck and Endocrine Surgery – From Clinical Presentation to Treatment Success. Springer
Publications, ISBN: 978-3-319-27532-1
Ioannis Christakis

3) Christakis I., Palazzo F. (2012). Minimal Invasive Parathyroidectomy, Tips and tricks in
Endocrine Surgery. C. Springer Publications, Springer Publications. ISBN 978-0-85729-

4) Christakis I., Constantinides V., Garas G., Joseph J., Tolley N., Palazzo F. (2013).
Minimally Invasive Endocrine (Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal) Surgery: Evolution of
Operative Techniques, Safety, Effectiveness and Outcomes. Nova Science Publishers.
ISBN: 978-1-62948-838-7

5) Christakis I., Palazzo F. (2014). Parathyroid Glands: Homeostasis, Disease and
Indications for Surgical Treatment. Nova Science Publishers. ISBN: 978-63117-230-4


B. Published Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles (Total number: 45)

1) Understanding the clinical course of genotype-negative MEN1 patients can inform
management strategies. Pieterman CRC, Hyde SM, Wu SY, Landry JP, Chiang YJ,
Christakis I, Grubbs EG, Fisher SB, Graham PH, Waguespack SG, Perrier ND. Surgery.
2021 Jan;169(1):175-184. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2020.04.067. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

2) Using a Novel Diagnostic Nomogram to Differentiate Malignant from Benign
Parathyroid Neoplasms. Silva-Figueroa AM, Bassett R Jr, Christakis I, Moreno P,
Clarke CN, Busaidy NL, Grubbs EG, Lee JE, Perrier ND, Williams MD. Endocr Pathol.
2019 Dec;30(4):285-296. doi: 10.1007/s12022-019-09592-3.

3) 18 Fluorocholine PET/CT scanning with arterial phase-enhanced CT is useful for
persistent/recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism: first UK case series results. Christakis
I, Khan S, Sadler GP, Gleeson FV, Bradley KM, Mihai R. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2019
Jul 15:1-7. doi: 10.1308/rcsann.2019.0059

4) Long-term quality of voice is usually acceptable after initial hoarseness caused by a
thyroidectomy or a parathyroidectomy. Christakis I, Klang P, Talat N, Galata G, Schulte
KM. Gland Surg. 2019 Jun;8(3):226-236. doi: 10.21037/gs.2018.09.02.

5) Children are at a High Risk of Hypocalcaemia and Hypoparathyroidism after Total
Thyroidectomy. de Jong M, Nounou H, Rozalén García V, Christakis I, Brain C, AbdelAziz TE, Hewitt RJ, Kurzawinski TR. J Pediatr Surg. 2019 Jul 19. pii: S0022-
3468(19)30463-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.06.027.

6) Seventeen Cases of Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Pregnancy: A Call for Management
Guidelines. DiMarco AN, Meeran K, Christakis I, Sodhi V, Nelson-Piercy C, Tolley
NS, Palazzo FF. J Endocr Soc. 2019 Feb 20;3(5):1009-1021. doi: 10.1210/js.2018-00340.
eCollection 2019 May 1.

7) Operation duration and adrenal gland size, but not BMI, are correlated with complication
rate for posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy for benign diseases. Christakis I,
Ng CS, Chen C, Yiin YH, Grubbs EG, Perrier ND, Lee JE, Graham PH. Surgery. 2018
Oct 25. pii: S0039-6060(18)30644-5. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2018.09.004.

8) Comprehensive genomic characterization of parathyroid cancer identifies novel candidate
driver mutations & core pathways. Callisia N Clarke, Panagiotis Katsonis, Teng-Kuei
Hsu, Ioannis Christakis, Olivier Lichtarge, Nancy Perrier. Journal of the Endocrine
Society, September 2018, DOI: 10.1210/js.2018-00043

9) Gender Differences in Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Sporadic Primary
Hyperparathyroidism. Danica Dopovicec, Angelica Silva, Ioannis Christakis, Naifa
Bussaidy, Callisia Clarke, Elizabeth Gardner Grubbs, Jeffrey E. Lee, Nancy D.Perrier.
Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism. Aug 2018. DOI: 10.1002/edm2.37
10) Establishing a Successful Rat-Model of Duodenal- Jejunal Bypass: a detailed guide.
Akalestou E, Genser L, Villa F, Christakis I, Chokshi S, Williams R, Rubino F.. Lab
Anim. 2018 Sep 18:23677218797370. doi:

Ioannis Christakis

11)I Christakis, S Dimas, ID Kafetzis, N Roukounakis. Risk stratification of 282
differentiated thyroid cancers found incidentally in 1369 total thyroidectomies according
to the 2015 ATA guidelines; implications for management and treatment. Ann R Coll
Surg Engl. 2018 Feb 27:1-6. doi: 10.1308/rcsann.2018.0017.

12) Metastasis to the thyroid gland from a tonsil squamous cell carcinoma. Gumaa D,
Christakis I, Mihai R. AME Case Rep. 2018 Mar 7;2:7. doi: 10.21037/acr.2018.01.04

13) DiMarco A, Christakis I, Constantinides V, Regan L, Palazzo FF. Undiagnosed Primary
Hyperparathyroidism and Recurrent Miscarriage: The First Prospective Pilot Study.
World J Surg. 2018 Jan 18. doi: 10.1007/s00268-017-4395-7.

14) Ye L, Wang W, Ospina NS, Jiang L, Christakis I, Lu J, Zhou Y, Zhu W, Cao Y, Wang
S, Perrier ND, Young WF Jr, Ning G, Wang W. Clinical Features and Prognosis of
Thymic Neuroendocrine Tumors Associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1:
A Single Center Study, Systematic Review, and Meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf).
2017 Sep 20. doi: 10.1111/cen.13480.

15)Ioannis Christakis, Angelica M. Silva, Thinh Vu, Michelle D. Williams, Hubert
H.Chuang, , Naifa L. Busaidy, Bryan Fellman, Nancy D. Perrier. The Diagnostic
Accuracy of Neck Ultrasound, 4D-Computed Tomography and Sestamibi Imaging in
Parathyroid Carcinoma. European Journal of Radiology. 1 August 2017.

16)Ioannis Christakis, Wei Qiu, Samuel M. Hyde, Gilbert J. Cote, Elizabeth G. Grubbs,
Nancy D. Perrier, Jeffrey E. Lee. Genotype-Phenotype Pancreatic Neuroendocrine
Tumor Relationship in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Patients: A 23 Year
Experience at a Single Institution. Surgery. 2017 Nov 6. pii: S0039-6060(17)30606-2.
doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2017.04.044.

17) Ioannis Christakis, Angelica Silva, Michelle D Williams, Adam S Garden, Elizabeth G
Grubbs, Naifa L Busaidy, Jeffrey E Lee, Nancy D Perrier, Mark Zafereo. Postoperative
Local-regional Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Parathyroid Carcinoma; The MD
Anderson Experience of 35 Years. Pract Radiat Oncol. 2017 Jul 21. pii: S1879-
8500(17)30175-3. doi: 10.1016/j.prro.2017.05.009

18) Christakis I, Zacharopoulou P,Galanopoulos G, Kafetzis ID, Dimas S, Roukounakis
N. Inadvertent parathyroidectomy risk factors in 1,373 thyroidectomies—male gender
and presence of lymphadenopathy, but not size of gland, independently increase the risk.
Gland Surg 2017;6(6):666-674. doi: 10.21037/gs.2017.07.06

19) Lee F. Starker, Ioannis Christakis, Jamii St. Julien, Kelly Schwarz, Paul Graham,
Elizabeth G. Grubbs, Jeffrey E. Lee, Nancy D. Perrier. Considering Postoperative
Functional Hypoaldosteronism Following Unilateral Adrenalectomy. Am Surg. 2017 Jun

20)Ioannis Christakis, Ilias-Dimitrios Kafetzis, Spiros Dimas, Nikolaos Roukounakis.
Pathology findings of 377 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer in a single centre.
Hellenic Journal of Surgery (2017) 89:2, 107-114.

21)Ioannis Christakis, Rebecca Scott, James Minnion, Joyceline Cuenco, Tricia Tan,
Fausto Palazzo, and Stephen Bloom. Measuring the Pharmacokinetic Properties of
Drugs with a Novel Surgical Rat Model. J Invest Surg. 2017 Jun;30(3):162-169. doi:
10.1080/08941939.2016.1231856. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

22)Ioannis Christakis, John Livesey, Gregory P Sadler, Radu Mihai. Laparoscopic
adrenalectomy for Conn’s syndrome is beneficial to patients and is cost effective in
England. J Invest Surg. 2017 May 12:1-7. doi:10.1080/08941939.2017.1323055

23) Silva-Figueroa AM, Hess KR, Williams MD, Clarke CN, Christakis I, Graham PH,
Grubbs EG, Lee JE, Busaidy NL, Perrier ND. Prognostic Scoring System to Risk Stratify
Ioannis Christakis
Parathyroid Carcinoma. J Am Coll Surg. 2017 Mar 15. pii: S1072-7515(17)30179-5.
doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2017.01.060

24) Qiu W, Christakis I, Stewart AA, Vodopivec DM, Silva-Figueroa A, Chen H, Woodard
TL, Halperin DM, Lee JE, Yao JC, Perrier ND. Is estrogen exposure a protective factor
for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours in female patients with multiple endocrine
neoplasia syndrome type 1? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2017 Mar 8. doi: 10.1111/cen.13324

25) Ioannis Christakis, Naifa Bussaidy, Callisia Clarke, Lily Joy Kwatampora, Carla L.
Warneke, Angelica M. Silva, Michelle Williams, Elizabeth Gardner Grubbs, Jeffrey E.
Lee, Nancy D. Perrier. Differentiating Atypical parathyroid Neoplasm from Parathyroid
Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016. DOI 10.1245/s10434-016-5248-6

26) Ioannis Christakis, Naifa L. Busaidy, Gilbert J. Cote, Michelle D. Williams, Samuel M.
Hyde, Angelica M. Silva Figueroa, Lily Joy Kwatampora, Callisia N. Clarke, Wei Qiu,
Jeffrey E. Lee, Nancy D. Perrier. Parathyroid carcinoma and atypical parathyroid
neoplasms in MEN1 patients; A clinico-pathologic challenge. The Anderson case series
and review of the literature. International Journal of Surgery. 31 (2016) 10-16

27)Ioannis Christakis, Wei Qiu, Angelica M. Silva, Samuel Hyde, Gilbert J. Cote, Naifa L.
Busaidy, Michelle D. Williams, Elizabeth Grubbs, Jeffrey E. Lee, Nancy D. Perrier.
Clinical Features, Treatments, and Outcomes of Patients with Thymic Carcinoids and
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Syndrome at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Horm
Cancer. 2016 Aug;7(4):279-87. doi: 10.1007/s12672-016-0269-y. Epub 2016 Jun 16.

28)Ioannis Christakis, Angelica M. Silva, Lily Joy Kwatampora , Carla L. Warneke,
Callisia N. Clarke, Michelle D. Williams, Elizabeth Grubbs, Jeffrey E. Lee, Naifa L.
Busaidy, Nancy D. Perrier. Oncologic Progress for the Treatment of Parathyroid
Carcinoma. Journal of Surgical Oncology. J Surg Oncol. 2016 Nov;114(6):708-713. doi:
10.1002/jso.24407. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

29)I.Christakis, N.Perrier. A Clinical Practice Algorithm for the Treatment of Cervical
Hematoma following an Endocrine Surgical Procedure. Surgery. 2016 Dec;160(6):1712-
1714. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2016.04.018. Epub 2016 May 27.

30) Wei Qiu, Ioannis Christakis, Angelica Silva, Roland L Bassett, Liyun Cao, Qing H
Meng, Elizabeth Gardner Grubbs, Hua Zhao, James C Yao, Jeffrey E Lee, Nancy D
Perrier: Utility of chromogranin A, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon, and gastrin in the
diagnosis and follow-up of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine
neoplasia type 1 patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Sep;85(3):400-

31) A.Silva, D. Vodopivec, I. Christakis, G. Lyons, Q. Wei, S. Waguespack, S. M Petak, E.
Grubbs, J. E Lee, N. D Perrier. Surgical intervention for primary hyperparathyroidism
offers greater bone recovery in patients with sporadic disease compared to those with
multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-related hyperparathyroidism. Surgery. 2017
Jan;161(1):107-115. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2016.06.065. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

32)I. Christakis, E. Potylchansky, A. Silva, J. Nates, P. Prieto, P. Graham, E. Grubbs, J.Lee,
N. Perrier. Cervical Hematoma following an Endocrine Surgical Procedure: The MD
Anderson Experience. Surgery. 2016 Aug; 160(2):377-83. doi:
10.1016/j.surg.2016.02.024. Epub 2016 Apr 7.

33) Akalestou E, Christakis I, Solomou AM, Minnion JS, Rutter GA, Bloom SR:
Proglucagon-Derived Peptides Do Not Significantly Affect Acute Exocrine Pancreas in
Rats. Pancreas. 2016 Aug;45(7):967-73

34) Miras A., Seyfried F., Phinikaridou A., Andia M., Christakis I., Spector A., Botnar A.,
Leroux CW. Rats fed diets with different energy contribution from fat do not differ in
adiposity. Obes Facts. 2014 Oct 1;7(5):302-310
Ioannis Christakis
Page| 16
35) Christakis I. Georgiou P., Minnion J., Constantinides V., Tan T., Palazzo F., Murphy K.,
Bloom S. Learning curve of vessel cannulation in rats using CUSUM analysis. J Surg
Res. 2015 Jan;193(1):69-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2014.06.048. Epub 2014 Jul 1.

36) Stevens JL., Constantinides V., Todd J., Meeran K., Christakis I., Tolley NS., Palazzo F.
Do flow Volume loops alter surgical management in patients with a goiter? Clin
Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014 Dec;81(6):916-20. doi: 10.1111/cen.12539.

37) Constantinides VA, Christakis I, Touska P, Meeran K, Palazzo F. Retroperitoneoscopic
or laparoscopic adrenalectomy? A single-centre UK experience. Surg Endosc. 2013
Nov;27(11):4147-52. doi: 10.1007/s00464-013-3009-1. Epub 2013 May 25

38) Constantinides V., Christakis I., Touska P., Palazzo F. Systematic review and metaanalysis of retroperitoneoscopic versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Br J Surg. 2012
Dec; 99(12):1639-48. doi: 10.1002/bjs.8921. Epub 2012 Sep 28.

39) Christakis I., Constantinides V., Tolley N., Palazzo F. Parathyroid Autotransplantation
during Thyroid Surgery: How I do it. World Journal of Endocrine Surgery. 2012;
4(3):115-117 DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10002-1112

40) Christakis I., Michas S., Mouziouras V., Augoustis C., Dimas S. Minimally invasive
techniques for giant parathyroid tumors. An oxymoron?, Hellenic Journal of Surgery.
2012; 84 (4), 220-224, DOI: 10.1007/s13126-012-0032-y

41) Dimas S., Michas S., Christakis I., Augoustis C., Alevizaki M. Minimally invasive
parathyroidectomy in patients with previous neck surgery, Hormones 2012, 11(2):160-

42) Christakis, I., Kafetzis, I., Diamantopoulos, A., & Leoutsakos, V. (2012). Nonendocrine tumors causing endocrine syndromes: a brief review. International Journal of
Students’ Research, 2(1), 6-9. doi:10.5549/IJSR.2.1.6-9

43) Christakis I , Pagkratis M , Varvogli L , Darviri C , Chroussos G. Measuring the stress
of the surgeons in training and use of a novel interventional program to combat it, J
Korean Surg Soc. 2012 May;82(5):312-6

44) Dimas S, Roukounakis N, Christakis I. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy in
Patients with Previous Endocrine Surgery. JSLS. 2011 Oct-Dec; 15(4): 499–
503. doi: 10.4293/108680811X13176785204111

45) Diamantopoulos A, Kafetzis I, Christakis I, Leoutsakos V. The history of the
parathyroid glands, Hormones 2011, 10(1):80-84

Leadership experience

Clinical lead for Endocrine Surgery in Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust
Thyroid Cancer MDT lead in Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust

Professional memberships